Anthropometric Tests

Centar za nutricionizam i dijetetiku inga markovic

Nutritional composition analysis with BIA technology – INBODY Analysis 720 and 270

In order to get a detailed overview of the nutritional status, it is necessary to determine the structure of body weight. BIA technology (Bio Impedance Analysis – Bioelectrical impedance measurement) is a contemporary non-invasive method used to get results about the composition of our bodies. This advanced technology uses free-standing electrodes that send weak and safe electrical signals through the body to get results about bone and muscle mass, as well as the amount and distribution of fat tissue. It also informs us about the presence of edema or dehydration. The equipment used for this analysis uses electrical signals that go through fluids in muscles, blood, and water freely, while fat tissue resists them because fat doesn’t contain much water, which leaves us with the results about fat distribution. In order to get precise data on health risks, it is necessary to determine the distribution of fat tissue in the human body, as well as the information about the amount of it in the abdominal region, obtained by measuring waist size and waist/hip ratio.

What date do we get with BIA Body Composition Analysis Technology? (InBody 720 and InBody 270)

InBody 720 and InBody 270 show the quantitative value of different building elements of our bodies. Those values represent the weight of each building element, which makes the total body weight of the examinee. The estimated values get compared to the standard values after that. InBody 720 and 270 BIA Body Composition Analysis is based on a four-part model: the overall amount of body water, proteins, minerals, and fat.

TBW (total body water), INCW (intercellular body water), and EXCW (extracellular body water).
InBody 720 and 270 measures total body water (TBW) using multifrequency technology that divides it on intercellular (INCW) and extracellular (EXCW) water. Intercellular water represents the amount of water inside of a cellular membrane. Extracellular water represents the total amount of water in interstitial fluid and blood. The ratio of INCW and EXCW in a healthy body should be 3:2 (TBW = INCW+EXCW). It is not possible to determine the amount of water in bowls using this method, so examinees are advised to get tested on an empty stomach since the electricity in microamperes has a limited ability to go through the walls of bowls.

Proteins
Proteins are a solid organic component that consists of nitrogen, which can be found in body cells. Proteins are also the main component of muscle mass, together with water. They are directly connected to intercellular water. Because of it, the lack of proteins suggests the lack of intercellular water, which means that cells in our bodies are malnourished.

Minerals
Minerals play a key role in the human body. InBody 720 and 270 technology analyses two big groups of minerals: bone and non-bone minerals. Bone minerals are found in bones, while non-bone minerals are in every other part of the human body. Bone minerals make around 80% of the total amount of minerals in our bodies. The amount of minerals is closely connected to the muscle mass since the increase of muscle mass leads to the increase of bone weight, as well.

Body fat
The body fat represents a total amount of lipids that can get extracted from fat and other cells. A BIA method can’t measure it directly, so it is necessary to subtract the total amount of non-fat tissue from the total body weight to calculate body fat (body fat= bodyweight – non-fat tissue).

Pure muscle mass
To calculate the pure muscle mass, it is necessary to subtract the amount of found minerals in bones from the total amount of non-fat tissue.

Non-fat tissue
Non-fat tissue consists of the weight of the rest of the components when the total amount of body fat gets subtracted from the body weight.

Weight
Weight consists of body water, proteins, minerals, and body fat. It represents the total of these four components (weight= body water + proteins + minerals + body fat). 100% standard weight is the ideal value for examinees, taking into account their height. This can be calculated using an ITM standard method for weight measurement. For men of the Asian and Western descent, a value 22 is applied, while the same value for women of Asian descent is 21, but for those of Western descent, it is 21.5 SMM (skeletal muscle mass).

100% standard skeletal muscle mass is an ideal amount of skeletal muscle mass, taking into account the standard height of the examinee. There are three types of muscles – cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle. InBody 720 and 270 analysis shows the skeletal muscle mass separated from the pure muscle mass. This analysis can determine obesity or malnourishment more proactively and accurately by comparing the percentage value of body fat and skeletal muscle mass found in every component of the human body.

BFM (Body fat mass)
100% standard body fat represents body fat that examinees should obtain in regards to their standard weight. The ideal body fat is 15% for men and 23% for women.

 BMI (Body mass index) 
The body mass index can be calculated using the following formula – BMI = weight (kg)/height (m2). It plays the most important role in determining the nutritional status of the patient. The BMI method is the main tool for diagnostics of the nutritional status, widely used in general medicine, as well as nutritional and sports medicine. InBody 720 and 270 method suggests that the standard BMI for men is 22, while for women, it can be 21.5 or 21 for women of Asian descent. However, the standard BMI ranges from 18.5 to 24.9 for both men and women. Body mass index in that range is considered normal, while people whose BMI is 18.5 or less are believed to be malnourished. Those with a BMI ranging from 25 to 30 are overweight, while those whose BMI is higher than 30 are considered obese.

BFP (body fat percentage)
Body fat percentage represents the percentage of fat in regards to the weight of the body. It can be calculated using a formula (%) = the mass of body fat (kg) / the body weight (kg) x 100. The standard body fat percentage is 15% for men and 23% for women, while the standard range of body fat mass is between 10 and 20% of the standard weight for men and from 18 to 28% of the standard weight for women. The level of body fat mass can be divided into two types: the first type is people whose muscle type is considered a desirable body composition proportion. The weight of those people is within the standard range or falls in the category of obesity. The second type or the malnourished type are people whose body is considered unhealthy because of the lack of body fat and skeletal muscle mass. If we are talking about men, people whose body fat percentage is between 10 and 20% fall into the normal category, those with 20 to 25% of body fat are overweight, while men with over 30% of body fat are considered obese.

When it comes to women, people with the body fat percentage between 18 and 28% are normal, those with 28 to 33% are overweight, while women who have 33% of body fat or more are considered obese.

WHR (Waist-hip ratio)
The waist-hip ratio that is calculated based on the size of the waist and hips is an effective indicator of body fat mass. InBody 720 and 270 method uses the index of resistance to get a scientific estimation of examinee’s WHR. Men and women whose WHR is 0.90 and 0.85 suffer from abdominal obesity. Men with a WHR lower than 0,90 have normal weight, while those whose WHR is between 0,90 and 0,95 are overweight. If a man has a higher WHR than 0,95, he is considered to be obese.

Women whose WHR is lower than 0,85 have normal body weight, while those with a ration between 0,85 and 0,95 are overweight. If a woman has a WHR higher than 0,95, she is considered to be obese.

RA, LA, TRUNK, RL, LL (Lean balance)
InBody 720 and 270 method uses a segmental analysis to estimate the amount of lean body mass in every part of the human body. Thanks to its ability to perform a segmental analysis, this equipment is capable of providing detailed data about different body parts. Because of it, the lean body mass analysis will enable an examinee to see if their muscle development is balanced, as well as to check the strength of their muscles.

The standard Lean Balance chart ranges between 80 to 120% for the right and left arm and 90 to 110% for the trunk and the right and left leg. The function Body balance checks if the muscles in every part of the body are developed in a balanced way and searches for the differences between muscles in both arms to estimate the balance of the upper part of the body, as well as the differences in muscles in both legs to estimate the balance of the lower part of the body.

The function Body strength checks if the examinee’s muscle mass is developed enough to support their weight. Those whose lower bar chart in Lean Balance is within the standard range are considered normal. However, people whose lower bar chart falls below the standard rage are considered weak, while those above the standard range are called developed.

Edema InBody 720 and 270 analysis measures the amount of water in the body by separating intercellular and extracellular water and uses the edema index to calculate the water balance in the body. The edema index shows the total and segmental edema. A healthy person has an inalterable share of intercellular and extracellular water. The edema gets discovered when the levels of extracellular water increase for some reason. The standard range of the edema index is between 0,36 and 0,40. Every result of over 0,40 shows the presence of the edema. It gets calculated using a formula – edema = extracellular water/total amount of the body water. The edema index InBody 720 and 270 is also used to calculate the ratio of INCW (intercellular fluid) and EXCW (extracellular fluid).  

The fluid is related to the process of mixing proteins and minerals with the body water in the ratio 2:1 of INCW to EXCW. The ideal range of ICF/TBF (total body fluid) is between 0,31 and 0,35. The edema (ECW/TBW) chart that shows values between 0,36 and 0,40 is normal, while values between 0,40 and 0,43 are classified as smaller edema. The values over 0,43 are classified as edema.

Nutritional evaluation
The nutritional status of the body is evaluated based on proteins, fat, and minerals. Even though proteins, minerals, and fats represent nutritional elements that people obtain from food, they are considered to be a part of body composition during the body composition analysis. If it turns out that an examinee has less than 90% of the wanted level of proteins, it means that they suffer from the lack of proteins, which is common with people who are malnourished. Such a result can indicate a lack of muscle mass or a bad diet.

Minerals are estimated based on their ration in regard to the weight. When minerals encompass less than 3,5% of the total weight, based on the body composition, age, and sex, it means that a person suffers from the lack of minerals. The lack of minerals increases the risk of arthritis, bone fracture, or osteoporosis.

The amount of body fat is identified as a lack, normal, or excessive amount after being compared to the muscle mass. In general, if it exceeds 160% of the body fat, it is considered to be too high, while 80% or less is too low. Anywhere between those parameters is normal.

BMR (basal metabolic rate)
The basal metabolic rate determines the minimal amount of energy needed to keep the vital function running while resting. InBody 720 and 270 analysis enables us to estimate the BMR using a widely-known regressive equation based on lean body mass (LBM).

Lean body mass is tightly connected to the basal metabolic rate (BMR). BMR is often calculated using indirect calorimetry that orders a search for oxygen alternately. However, InBody 720 and 270 calculates BMR based on the lean body mass as follows: BMR = 21,6 x LBM (kg) + 370.

IBS – InBody Score
InBody score is an index used for understanding the composition of one’s body. The score with 70 points or less symbolizes a weak or obese type, while a score between 70 and 90 points symbolizes a normal or healthy type. The score with over 90 points represents a strong body type.

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